Cost: 2. XP: 3.


Sobald du eine Kampf-Fähigkeit auf einer Feuerwaffe-Vorteilskarte verwendest, erschöpfe Scharfschütze: Wähle eins oder beides… -

- Dieser Angriff verwendet statt . Alle -Modifikatoren modifizieren für diesen Angriff stattdessen deine .

- Verwende für diesen Angriff den Entkommen-Wert des angegriffenen Gegners statt seines Kampfwertes.

Matt Bradbury
Winifred Habbamock #27.

Latest Taboo

Costs -1 additional experience.



(from the official FAQ or responses to the official rules question form)

Q: I want to ask about the first option of Sharpshooter's ability. It reads "All modifiers to your for this attack modify your instead." Does this mean that I can commit cards with only skill icon in this skill test (e.g. Overpower/Vicious Blow)?

A: No; the first ability on Sharpshooter makes the resulting skill test require agility icons to be committed instead of combat icons, so you could not commit Overpower to that test. (Although, if you had any passive modifiers to your combat value in play, such as Beat Cop, then those would modify your agility instead of your combat value for the test.) (Rules Q&A, June 2023)

Last updated


By and large an iffy asset. It has a number of problems that make it inferior to some routinely good cards, even some straight up mediocre cards are better at doing the things this one is supposed to.

This card is...

1) Unwieldy! This is an asset that specifically targets a playercard type. Without a Firearm this thing is blank. It doesnt have Icons that lessen the impact of having a useless copy of this in your hand. When the time comes to actually use this thing it's an action and 2 resources to play, on top of the XP. Guns are already cost and generally XP intensive so these are steep costs indeed.

2) Ineffective! In general, swapping for or the enemy -Fight- for -Evade- is a net benefit of +1 or +2. You're getting this benefit because of an innate skill or difficulty difference, so you're paying the costs agove not to get a bonus on top of your good numbers, it's to replace bad numbers with good numbers. I.E, a character that doesnt have this thing in play either has a small enough difference between and that a similar benefit would be accessible via Hard Knocks, Delilah O'Rourke or Well Connected, or the difference is so great that without Sharpshooter in play the Firearm's you aim to use it with are outright unusable (for example if you play Trish or Sefina).

3) Useless! The only benefit of playing this thing is to get a statistical upgrade on attacks, something that a heap of other cards can do already, and do it better at similar or lower XP costs (Delilah O'Rourke, Hard Knocks, Well Connected). Worse still, this thing Exhausts! You only get to buff one attack per round!

I do NOT like this card. For this mechanic to be useful it ought to be a Permament card. Frankly I think I'dd be happy to pay 4 or 5 XP for this card exactly as written. Heck make it a 2xp exceptional permament!

Wishlisting aside, this thing is garbage, if youre looking to spend 3 XP on Sharpshooter, just save the 1 XP and get Hard Knocks.

Tsuruki23 · 2486
Fully agree. I think Sharpshooter is a trap. Dont take it. — StyxTBeuford · 12943
I'd say it's a very situational card. Most Rogues don't have a combat more than 1 point lower than their agility, with Sephina, Winifred, and Trish being the exception (Tony has a 3-point gap, but in the wrong direction). With Sephina, she might want to have a firearm option, but she's somewhat more likely to just pack more spells and leverage that willpower instead. So that leaves Trish and Winifred as the investigators where this would really shine, and both could use some enemy management boosting. If you use both abilities with either of these investigators, you could be looking at a +4 pretty often (since there are a lot of enemies with a 2 point difference between combat and evade). So, is this a must-include? No. Is this a useful tool for a few specific investigators/builds? Yes. I, for one, welcome the opening of new deck styles. — LivefromBenefitSt · 1033
Oh, I do agree that it would be better as a Permanant -- having to dig for this as well as a firearm just makes the whole thing harder to pull off. — LivefromBenefitSt · 1033
The problem is that there’s very little reason to run this even in the evasive investigators. Just take Ornate Bow, or if you’re really committed to having a once a turn boost, use High Roller. You could use both, sure, but at that point you’re investing heavily to make something suboptimal passable. Sharpshooter is just plain bad imho. — StyxTBeuford · 12943
We ran it in a Flex Finn deck and it was solid. Usually it was +3/+4 (sometimes much more) since he was already running Track Shoes and The Boyfriend for extra agility. And didn't have any of the resource conditionality/risk of High Roller (the only real direct comparison). As a Flex, he only needed the boosted shot once per round to help with the Fighter's damage and it paired will with the lower bonus 1h firearms that he wanted to hold alongside a Lockpicks anyways. — Death by Chocolate · 1394
Agreed, should be a perm. — MrGoldbee · 1416
Have you actually played with this card in Winifred? I have, and it turned out to be the MVP of the deck -- the firearms Winifred's starter deck includes work well enough for her that she gets along fine with not finding it (and wouldn't want Ornate Bow -- the "pass by 2/4" effects are that good), but *with* it you end up just steamrolling everything. — Thatwasademo · 54
Oh, and I guess it helps a lot that Winifred can quickly find it if it's not in your opener thanks to her amazingly strong draw engine. — Thatwasademo · 54
Basically, here's the thing: Every asset that exhausts for a free +2 is *really good*, and even with the hoops you have to jump through for this, it's no exception. — Thatwasademo · 54
The alternatives you list aren't always good alternatives -- Delilah occupies your ally slot, Hard Knocks is actually just worse and I don't know why the people on this site love those types of cards so much, Well Connected actually is also good, but has different hoops to jump through that means it goes in different decks. — Thatwasademo · 54
But that’s the problem- you either have a deck that does fine without it, or you have a deck that is filly dependent on it. Wini is the absolute best case scenario for this since her draw means she can find it more quickly, but even there you have major opp cost. Unlike the other available +2 boosters, this one only matters if you’re fighting, and the irony is that it’s best in people who could just as easily evade anyway. This card is nowhere near as versatile as Well Connected, or High Roller, or honestly even Hard Knocks 2. When you draw this card, you could’ve instead slotted something else with much more utility. — StyxTBeuford · 12943
Fully — StyxTBeuford · 12943
I disagree that this is a poor card. Rogues start scenarios with a 1 or 2 difference between agility and combat but there are numerous agility boosts available in Rogue but very few combat boosts. This can easily be a +3 or +4 by the end of the scenario when you have to face the boss. And you can't just evade boss usually. There are enemies that have to die (Hunters or VP for example) and this card with a few guns in the deck would be a potent combo. — The Lynx · 971
I think "could just as easily evade anyway" isn't really a good counterargument (evaded enemies are still there, which may matter for a lot of different reasons: hunter, having to return to the same location later, boss fights), nor even really true in most cases (the *good* rogue guns give a stat boost, and while there are an asset or two that help with evasion, that kind of defeats the argument). It takes more work to get Well Connected to 10 than this in play for anyone who'd consider both (Preston ain't gonna use a gun, and Jenny has equal stats). High Roller is a decent alternative that the review above absolutely should have mentioned -- it's one less XP, but a bit riskier to run in play (if you fail you're out three resources on top of exhausting the card, as opposed to just exhausting the card), and doesn't have the upside potential this has (plenty of enemies have lower evade than fight). The fact that it only matters when you're fighting ... isn't really a big deal, at least in multiplayer? You don't get many turns where there's no enemies being drawn, and if you do usually the rest of your team is very happy about it so you can live with the loss of value of not getting to exhaust Sharpshooter that turn. — Thatwasademo · 54
Oh, as for the complete dependency vs unnecessary excess issue: The deck I ran Sharpshooter in that gave me my opinions used it with the Beretta M1918, so it made the difference between a skill of 7 before committing cards, wanting to succeed by 4, and a skill of 9 (+ possible reduced difficulty) before committing cards, wanting to succeed by 4. So it wasn't like I'd be missing shots without Sharpshooter in play, but I'd be exhausting my gun or not getting +1 damage, or having to commit more of my ? icons to attacks until I found it and could start using my icons on investigating or scenario card tests. — Thatwasademo · 54
There was also some incidental value thrown in with occasionally getting to use Nimble attacks to save actions moving without leaving an exhausted enemy behind or having to waste those actions reloading a bow, but that's not a particularly strong argument. — Thatwasademo · 54
use Nimble *on* attacks, even — Thatwasademo · 54
And, to actually elaborate on my point above that "Hard Knocks is just worse": An action, a card, and 3 resources spent on Hard Knocks gets you +3 to one test and the ability to throw more of your money away on future tests. An action, a card, and three resources spent on Sharpshooter in Wini gets you at least +2, fairly frequently more, that comes back for free the next round. — Thatwasademo · 54
Sorry, did I say "three" resources? This card costs 2. I had forgotten and assumed it had to be 3 since there had to be *some* upside to Hard Knocks. — Thatwasademo · 54
Hard Knocks can be used multiple times in one round, this cant. Hard Knocks also lets you boost other combat and evasion checks, such as Locked Doors. Those are, in fact, two major upsides to Hard Knocks 2. It’s also one XP cheaper. — StyxTBeuford · 12943
In a practical best case scenario, it's a 1/round +3 bonus to a fight check, assuming you have a Firearm out and static bonuses to Agility. I think that even an unconditional +3 bonus to a fight check 1/round might be overcosted at 3xp, to say nothing of the actual setup required for Sharpshooter to work. — suika · 9310
As if to add insult to injury, we have Hard Knocks 4 now as well which gets the replenished 2 resources/turn. So yeah, in the right deck, Sharpshooter may reliably be a +3 on average, but having the ability to boost agility or combat for any test versus being forced to a once/turn boost on just firearms makes it a much more flexible choice. You maybe have to pay an extra 1 now and then for an equivalent boost, though it should also be addressed- whatever boost Sharpshooter gives you is largely out of your control and not necessarily that important for the bag math (e.g. there may be literally no difference in chance of success between +2 and +3), the point here being that you don't always need to match Sharpshooter's boost to have the same effect. — StyxTBeuford · 12943
1- Isn't a problem, if you are taking this you have a gun centric deck. 2 - is just wrong, it gives a lot of investigator +2-4 on their attack, it's especially good with long guns where you often only need one hit to kill the opponent (hence why it’s called Sharpshooter) 3 - What ? None of the cards you cited fit the archetype this one does. Don't listen to this guy, play the card it works quite well, and it's been tabooed to cost 2 XP, it was OK but expensive at 3, at 2 its quite good. — DakonBlackblade · 4

I've been rambling quite a bit in the comments of the other recent review of this card, and I think it's time I actually write up my own review.

This card was printed in Winifred Habbamock's starter deck, alongside a few very strong firearms, a context which makes the other review of this card wrong on all three counts.

1) Having to have a firearm in play is really not a huge burden. You already weren't going to be fighting enemies with your fists given you have 3 (and basic attack actions are also just ... never good anyway, given the game pretty much expects you to always deal at least 2 damage per action). The resource cost is also actually quite cheap for what you get: 2 resources, paid once, for +2 to one test per round forever without occupying a slot. Only using the card on attacks isn't that troublesome, either: in a multiplayer game, there's usually a pretty steady flow of enemies coming out of the encounter deck, and you can't get away with evading and ignoring most of them.

2) Wini has 3 and 5 . 3 is enough to be decent with a gun in hand especially given Wini's focus on skill cards (in case you can't find this card or have to make multiple shots in the same round), but the difference of 2 is a fairly hefty base boost. Then add on top of that the fact that if an enemy has lower evade than fight you can choose both options, so you sometimes get even more. And on top of that, there are a couple of Rogue skills that have agility icons and good effects, and the Rogue tarot card boosts agility... And it's not like that boost is going to waste if you were already going to pass the attack, since the guns FFG clearly wants you to run with Wini and this card give bonuses for over-succeeding. (for instance, turning the Beretta's 7 in Wini's hands to 9 sounds excessive, then you realize you want to be succeeding by 4 if possible, or maybe the enemy just has that high of a fight value...)

3) All of the alternative cards listed simply don't work as well for the job this does. Delilah O'Rourke takes up your ally slot (whereas this is slotless -- basically a dealbreaker when you're trying to make that sort of a direct comparison), costs one more resource, and gives half the boost (admittedly to every test, but then that also includes tests made with Sharpshooter?). Hard Knocks ... sucks. You pay the same 2 resources, and same play action in advance, to get the same +2 boost. Without getting to use the enemy's evade value if it's lower, or those agility skills I mentioned. And to do it again, you have to pay the 2 resources again. The only upside is that you can use it multiple times in the same round, if you can afford to throw away money that frivolously (a hard ask with Wini's card draw rate). Well Connected is a card that I love dearly... for Preston Fairmont or Jenny Barnes. Banking 10 resources for a +2 boost is probably also doable for Wini, but it takes more effort than just playing this card and immediately using it. It is a level 0 card though... maybe look into starting with Well Connected and upgrading into this card later? There is one card that was mentioned in the comments which actually stands a fighting chance against this: High Roller. One fewer XP, same resource and action cost, just as free to repeat if you succeed, and can be used on any skill test. It has its downsides which I think are just barely worth more than the 1 XP and added versatility though: You have to hold on to those 3 resources (not nearly as onerous as Well Connected's requirement, but it can bite you). If you fail the test you use it on, you lose 3 resources. You don't get more than +2 against enemies with low evade values.

In short, while this card is fairly niche (the 3 5 statline that makes this card shine like it does with Wini is pretty rare, though it might be okay for a 2 4 rogue?), it is, in fact, the best there is at what it does. Conveniently, as an investigator starter deck card, you have the cards to run alongside it and make it work included in the same pack.

Thatwasademo · 54
First you need to get it and a gun played tho. For 1xp I might take it, or 4-6xp as a permanent. — MrGoldbee · 1416
"You have to play the card to gain its benefits" is a really weird reason to dislike a card, and I already mentioned that you want to have a gun in play anyway. — Thatwasademo · 54
to be fair, if you are playing Winifred, you won't have much of an issue digging it out — Zinjanthropus · 225
Yeah. And it's also fine to not have it immediately since it's more of a value engine than critical to your success -- you *can* always just pass combat by throwing your skill cards at it. What this does is save you a card or two every round that an enemy shows up, which is well worth a play action and 2 resources at any point up to the last couple rounds. — Thatwasademo · 54
It seems that almost the negative reviews of this card don't consider the fact that you can have 2 Sharpshooter in play at the same time, which is something that you can't do with Well Connected, for example. I played a game with Winifred, with 6 total firearm cards, and Sharpshooter. It was really worth it, especially when I fought Nightgaunts with 1 Evade value. When I got 2 sharpshooter in place, the exhausting effect didn't matter anymore. But moreover, why do people think it has to be either Sharpshooter or Hard Knocks? I had both. In the end you can't just rely one 2 cards on a 33+ deck, even if you have the amazing card draw of Wini. By having different means to boost your attack, you can perform much more reliably. Sometimes instead of having both copies of Sharpshooter, I had one copy of it plus Hard Knocks, and I only used Hard Knocks if I needed to boost a second attack. Which didn't happen that often, as I mostly used committed cards in those cases to save resources and trigger Wini's ability. Is Sharpshooter the best card ever? No, but it's far from being the awful card that some other comments here depict it as. It is a bit overpriced for what it does, admittedly. It should have costed 2 XP instead, and that could have made it viable for Wendy too. — Killbray · 10544
I agree with this review — shruti · 1
I want to really emphasize how amazing this card is with Rogue guns that want you to over-succeed. Running a #Mauser C96? Great, you can earn back the cost of Sharpshooter in 2 turns, and have extra money left over. Running the old #.41 Derringer workhorse? The first time you over-succeed, the card action pays for itself, then enjoy your extra action each turn. The one-handed guns also synergize well with #Lockpicks, if you need a true flex. This card makes extra damage much more reliable with bigger guns like #Beretta or #Shotgun. And THEN we get to the part where additional bonuses to both strength and agility count. If after all that, you still aren't confident about over-succeeding? Go ahead, commit either feet or fists to the test. This card also broadens the range of skill icons you can commit to the test. — shruti · 1
Drawing it isn't a huge problem either. Wini probably draws her entire deck before the halfway point. If you're running Lucky Cigarette Case, you can tutor for it. — shruti · 1
Thank you, I read the other review and thought I was at the Twilight Zone or something. This card is solid, if you use it in the right deck, but that’s pretty much how this game goes, cards are only as good as your deckbuilding in the end of the day. — DakonBlackblade · 4

I've been looking at the "Big Guns" that Rogues have available in their class. There are currently 4:
1) .45 Thompson
2) Chicago Typewriter
3) Beretta M1918
4) Sawed-Off Shotgun

Big Guns are useful to kill bosses and mini-bosses.
After reading through the reviews on this website for each of these 4 cards, it appears that the summary is:
The .45 Thompson and the Chicago Typewriter are better served in the hands of investigators with a naturally high Strength. Sharpshooter is helpful, but not a "must include".

The Beretta M1918 and the Sawed-Off Shotgun are probably better served in the hands of investigators with a naturally high Agility. Sharpshooter is very helpful, quite possibly a major contributor to the success of these guns.

Let me explain:
.45 Thompson and Chicago Typewriter
Neither of these two guns have a "succeed by" motif, so you don't need to aim exceptionally high. Assuming a 3 Strength Rogue with Lonnie Ritter and Delilah O'Rourke in play, they are already at a 5 base fight. If they are fighting a 4 Fight enemy, and the worst modifier in the bag is -5, then they need to be testing at a difficulty of 9. That means they are missing 4 more skill to beat the test. That can be garnered in different ways: Hard Knocks, Well Connected, High Roller, skill cards, etc.

Beretta M1918 and Sawed-Off Shotgun
These guns have a "succeed by" motif. The Beretta wants to over succeed by 4, and the Sawed-Off Shotgun wants to over succeed by at least 4, but ideally 6 for maximum value. Keeping with the same math as above (3 Strength Rogue, vs 4 Fight enemy, worst modifier is -5), then testing at a difficulty of 9, if you pull the -5 token, gives you an over success of 0. So, the Beretta wants you to test at 13, whereas the Sawed-Off Shotgun wants you to test at 15. WOW! Those are BIG NUMBERS!

Sharpshooter can help in these instances. Of course, cards like Well Connected, High Roller and Hard Knocks are helpful. But Sharpshooter can have a bigger impact, in just one card.

So right there, Sharpshooter is giving a bonus of +4 to +5, depending on the investigator.

Sharpshooter is capable of giving even more bonuses than that.

  • your attack now uses Agility instead. Rogue cards have a lot of Agility icons, more than Strength icons. This means you are more likely to have cards with Agility pips to commit to boost the test. There are a handful of double-Agility icon cards in Rogue.
  • you can choose to use the enemy's Evade value rather than their Fight value. I have not done a thorough search through bosses and mini-bosses stats, but I will estimate that enemies generally have equal or lower Evade values, compared to their Fight values. So Sharpshooter can possibly give extra bonuses from this difference in values.

TLDR: Sharpshooter can be a very strong card for a Big Guns Rogue who wants to be able to effectively kill bosses. If equipping the Beretta M1918 or Sawed-Off Shotgun, then Sharpshooter is a strong enabler to land those over-succeed by targets.

VanyelAshke · 177
Sharpshooter works decently well for a big gun rogue as a low priority upgrade after your Deliahs, your Sure Gambles, and Swift Reloads. The problem is that in almost every situation, a big gun rogue is less effective than a big gun guardian. — suika · 9310
...with the obvious exception of Tony, who can't effectively use Sharpshooter — suika · 9310
Tony could still benefit from the second effect of the card. How often do you see an enemies evade value higher than its fight? With that question in mind, would depend on the campaign for sure. — gmmster2345 · 2

This looks like a great card with cool abilities for high Agility rogues, but in practice I found it disappointing. First you need to get it and a gun played. Then you realize it exhausts, so if the first shot misses or fails to kill the target you need a back up source of damage. Tony isn't going to bother with it.

It's much too expensive for its limited usefulness.

The Ornate Bow is still a better weapon for this role.

Oweldon · 34
Also note that most Rogues have 3 combat. If you're taking Delilah O'Rourke that becomes 4 (and Delilah is probably the best ally for a mixed agility/combat enemy manager Rogue). This means that with the Derringer (2) you'll already be fighting at 6 most of the time. Sure, this would bring Finn or Skids up to 8, but you could do that anyway with High Roller or Well Connected, and those are a bit more versatile than Sharpshooter. You could take Sharpshooter and High Roller, but that adds another asset that you need to draw and play. Wini is probably just committing a bunch of cards to the test, anyway to try to get the extra action (and drawing a card in the process). I think the benefits are just too marginal for it to make the cut. Kind of a shame, as it's a cool concept. — Zinjanthropus · 225
This card feels like something you need to build your deck around, and then potentially fails to show-up and therefore never really ends up seeing play. It might be interesting if one day we got a version that was both Exceptional and Permanent (similar to how On Your Own got developed, and was a similar build-around style of card), I think it might be a lot more playable in that case — DigitalAgeHermit · 24
If I'm reading this correctly, for the attack in question you would benefit from bonuses to both your Fight AND Agility, correct? e.g. Reliable or Dark Horse would add +2 to the attack rather than the usual +1? — HanoverFist · 690
HanoverFist: The way I would read it is yes, but you probably can't commit combat icons to the test, still. @DigitalAgeHermit: In the case of Wini, you can be pretty confident that you'll draw it, at least, so it might be a decent build-around there. — Zinjanthropus · 225

Listen, don't get me wrong, it's a very bad card, there is no deck that will be improved by going in this direction, but I will evolve some sort of Finn deck into a Sharpshooter deck, and I'll have fun.

LordHamshire · 692
It should cost 1 exp or be a permanent. — LordHamshire · 692
I don't agree it's a bad card. I had a lot of fun with Wini deck where this card combos v well with Momentum. https://arkhamdb.com/decklist/view/28347/winifred-makes-a-mock-of-the-snakes-1.0 — acotgreave · 819
Agreed with Acotgreave. With Sharpshooter, Delilah gives +2, add Dirty Fighting and you have a great enemy manager. — Valentin1331 · 60670
How does Delilah gives +2? Sharpshooter replaces the test skill, does not add up fight+evade. Like mentioned on other reviews: Sharpshooter is bad, because it requires you to draw and play itself and a gun to do anything. — Susumu · 351
Delilah is +2 because Sharpshooter says "All modifiers to Fight modify Agility too" - so they both apply, even though agility is being tested? That's my interpretation. — acotgreave · 819
Also: "a card is bad because it requires you to draw it and play it"?? Huh? Doesn't that describe a huge amount of cards? Think of all the other weapon modifiers: they too require a gun, and the modifier to be drawn and played. Are those bad cards, too? — acotgreave · 819
I think the main critic is coming from the fact that it exhausts and therefore if you rely on it completely, you cannot shoot twice, in case of a beefier enemy or if you pull the autofail. Nevertheless, it can be alright in certain cases, including Expert, OP's favourite play style. — Valentin1331 · 60670
Thanks for the heads up on Delilah. Was not thinking about that, but it makes sense indeed. @ acotgreave: The issue is not, that you have to draw it and play it. It is, that it does nothing until you draw and played another card (namely a firearm). That makes it kind of expensive in actions, resources and card draw, similar to a Bandolier. Now Rogues get better around this than guardians, with extra actions, extra resources and LCC, but it is still questionable, if you want to take the extra efford for that effect. Taking it in a Rogue with low fight is kind of meh, because then you are relying of drawing your Sharpshooter, before your guns are of any use. And in a high fight Rogue there are other ways to push them. — Susumu · 351
I think Dirty Fighting is the perfect comparison. Tons of decks have already been made using that card, while Sharpshooter is left in the dust (or should I say binder). — Nenananas · 250
That's a bad comparison in my eyes since dirty fighting resolve around evading, while sharpshooter pushes fights. All in all if you need to fight and you play a Charakter with a high agility and low fight, it's a way you can spare hands lots compared to the bow. — Tharzax · 1
"Dirty Fighting" refunds you the evade action, if fighting is, what you want to do. AND makes you better in fighting on top of that. It is still a card for decks, that want to fight, not evade and leave the enemies behind. Hence, it's not called "Dirty Evading". — Susumu · 351
I’m using Wini in the Dream Eaters campaign with 3 other players. All characters need to draw and play cards to be “good” so everything here on a possibility scale and in truth it’s a main driver in why we the game to begin with. Having also been gifted a story asset that gives me a static boost to Strength and Speed I have looked very hard at Sharpshooter as a part of being the main fighter in the group. I’m using Hidden Pocket to hold a spare Mauser -yeah, more setup- so I can almost guarantee to get in two shots if I need. The large ammo capacity of the Mauser means I am not just holding onto the spare until the first gun is empty. Oh, and I have pulled Doomed as my weakness so why not try to have fun with it? Reckless and Arrogant are my normal style and I like not even worrying about something that I can’t mitigate. So the role that I am playing is really driven by some things that I have no control over. If Swarms weren’t susceptible to damage overflow I would have to rethink every choice I have regarding my Fight setup. — Staticalchemist · 1